Chemical Safety Review: Phenoxyethanol

What is phenoxyethanol?

Phenoxyethanol is one of the most commonly used synthetic preservatives in cosmetics today, and is also used as a fixative for perfumes. Companies use phenoxyethanol as a "safer" alternative to parabens, and will often market their products as paraben-free (since many people know to stay away from parabens).

Phenoxyethanol is an ethoxylated compound, and is formed by the chemical reaction between phenol (from either natural or synthetic sources), and ethylene oxide (a known carcinogen). It may be contaminated with carcinogenic toxin 1,4-dioxane, which is generated by ethylene oxide as a by-product.

Contamination of 1,4-dioxane in products is not uncommon among conventional cosmetic brands, and even "natural" and "organic" ones either.

Products it can be found in:

Moisturizers, eyeshadows, sunscreens, shampoos, conditioners, mascaras, styling gels, lip products, or anything water-based.

Other names for phenoxyethanol listed on product labels:

Fragrance or parfum (synthetic fragrances can contain one or more of 3,000 allowed chemicals, which includes phenoxyethanol), rose ether, optiphen™ (optiphen is a mix of phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol), 2-phenoxy-ethanol, and 2-hydroxyethyl phenyl ether.

Safety data

EWG hazard rating: 4

Classified as toxic (for use around the mouth), and an irritant by the European Union.

- Phenoxyethanol is a skin irritant. (Source), (Source)

- Phenoxyethanol induces cell death at low concentrations. A 2002 study showed that within a 24-hour period, a one-time application of phenoxyethanol at usage levels up to 1%, induced apoptosis and necrosis (two different forms of cell death). (Source)

- It was shown in a 1997 animal study that phenoxyethanol is a reproductive toxin. (Source)

- Phenoxyethanol was shown to be toxic towards not only ovarian function, but the development of offspring as well, in a 2010 animal study. (Source)

Other warnings:

The FDA issued a warning to consumers in 2008 about a nipple cream for nursing mothers that contains phenoxyethanol, saying the ingredient "can depress the central nervous system and may cause vomiting and diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration in infants."

Japan and the EU have restricted the usage rate of phenoxyethanol to 1% in products.

"Natural" companies that use it

*Many conventional brands use phenoxyethanol in their products, so i'm focusing this list more on brands that tout themselves as natural. 

- Aveeno
- Burt's Bees
- The Honest Company
- Lush
- Yes To
- Derma E
- Alba Botanica
- Nature's Gate
- Aveda
- Jason
- Korres
- The Body Shop


The bottom line

Many companies and organizations will have you believe phenoxyethanol is "non-toxic" at low concentrations, but studies clearly state otherwise.

As an ethoxylated compound, phenoxyethanol can contain trace amounts of 1,4-dioxane which is a known carcinogen.

While ingredients like phenoxyethanol are necessary to give water-based products protection against microbial growth, it would be better to use oil-based products instead to completely avoid preservatives, emulsifiers, and other potentially harmful ingredients.

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